The federal Family and Medical Leave Act has been amended to add two types of required leaves of absence. The 2008 National Defense Authorization Act (“N.D.A.A.”) amends the F.M.L.A. to provide a new 26 week leave to care for a family member who is in the military and is undergoing treatment or is temporarily disabled due to a serious injury or illness. The N.D.A.A. also extends the familiar 12 week leave to care for a family member who has experienced an as-yet-undefined “qualifying exigency.”
Prior to the 2008 N.D.A.A., the F.M.L.A. required covered employers to grant eligible employees up to twelve workweeks of unpaid leave during a twelve month period for one or more of the following reasons:
- for the birth and care of the newborn child of the employee;
- for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care;
- to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, or parent) with a serious health condition; or
- to take medical leave when the employee is unable to work because of a serious health condition.
The National Defense Authorization Act amendments to the F.M.L.A. extend the scope of the law to permit a “spouse, son, daughter, parent, or next of kin” to take up to 26 workweeks of leave to care for a “member of the Armed Forces, including a member of the National Guard or Reserves, who is undergoing medical treatment, recuperation, or therapy, is otherwise in outpatient status, or is otherwise on the temporary disability retired list, for a serious injury or illness.” This part of the N.D.A.A. became effective on January 28, 2008. The Department of Labor is preparing guidance and proposed regulations to implement the new leave.
The amendments also extend the F.M.L.A. by permitting an employee to take leave for “any qualifying exigency (as the Secretary [of Labor] shall, by regulation, determine) arising out of the fact that the spouse, or a son, daughter, or parent of the employee is on active duty (or has been notified of an impending call or order to active duty) in the Armed Forces in support of a contingency operation.” This part of the amendment is not yet effective; it will become effective after the Department of Labor issues final regulations defining “any qualifying exigency.”